Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Lecture Capture: Benefits, Concerns, and Challenges

Faculty members at Portland State University (PSU) show more interest in lecture capture. A number of instructors are already capturing lectures and creating podcasts and screencasts as additional learning resources for students. Approximately 70% of US colleges and schools of pharmacy reported routinely using classroom lecture capture software for curriculum delivery (Monaghan, Cain, Malone, Chapman, Walters, Thompson, & Riedl, 2011). This trend likely corresponds with the boom in online education (Allen&Seaman, 2010; Parker, Lenhart,& Moore, 2011) and students’ desires for mobile education options (Evans, 2008; McGarr, 2009).

Lecture capture involves the recording of classroom activities or special events (with either accompanying audio or video). The recording is normally stored digitally on the Internet or in iTunes U for downloading and playing back on computers and portable media players, such as MP3 players and iPods. The recording is sometimes referred to as a podcast or a screencast, and may be audio-only or include video of the lecture (Zhu & Bergom, 2010). Two commonly used lecture capture software programs are CamtasiaStudio and WimbaCalassroom. Some of the benefits of lecture capture include:

Lecture capture

  • provides additional resources for students:
    • archived lectures,
    • tutorials for lab work,
    • demonstrations of difficult concepts and complex procedures like printmaking or CPR
    •  presentations by guest speakers;
  • allows students to review material at their own pace and convenience
  • offers students more flexibility in note-taking;
  • makes time for active learning during class by having the lecture available for viewing before the class meetings
  • allows students to catch up with a missed lecture;
  • offers another tool for student learning projects (e.g., student-generated podcasts for interviewing locals and sharing with peers in a study-abroad program ) (Zhu & Bergom, 2010).

Despite the popularity and apparent benefits of lecture capture, questions remain regarding the impact of lecture capture on learning in higher education. Here is a summary of several recent research findings on this topic.

  • Making the lecture recordings available has no significant effects on attendance (e.g., Larkin, 2010; Nast et al., 2009; Pilarski et al., 2008; von Konsky et al., 2009; Nashash & Gunn, 2013).
  • Lecture capture is more likely to be of benefit to low achieving students (Owston, Lupshenyuk, & Wideman, 2011).
  • Online presentations might be particularly useful for disciplines that are "equation heavy." (Dey, Burn, & Gerdes, 2009)
  • Students who use recordings as study aids may have improved course performance, but students who use recordings as an alternative to class may have a decreased course performance (McNulty JA, Hoyt A, Gruener G, et al.2009, Williams A, Birch E, Hancock P., 2012)
  • Enabled deeper engagement with course material ( Edirisingha & Salmon, 2007 as cited in Zhu & Bergom, 2010; Nashash & Gunn, 2013)

Some concerns or challenges expressed by faculty regarding the use of lecture capture:
  • Technology and support  (Zhu & Bergom, 2010)
  • The possible impact on class attendance
  • The extra work involved (EDUCAUSE, 2008)
  • Privacy and copyright issues(EDUCAUSE, 2008)


Allen, E.,&Seaman, J. (2010). Class differences: Online education in the United States, 2010. Needham, MA: Sloan Consortium.
Edirisingha, P., & Salmon, G. (2007). Pedagogical models for podcasts in higher education, paper presented at the Eden Conference, Naples, Italy, 13-16th, June.
Educause (2008). 7 things you should know about lecture, Retrieved February 5, 2014, from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7044.pdf
Larkin, H. (2010). ‘‘But they won’t come to lectures .. . ’’ The impact of audio recorded lectures on student experience and attendance. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26,238–249.
May, V. V. (2008). Lecture capture pilot project results. Retrieved February 5, 2014 from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dcal/resources/documents/lecturecapture
McNulty JA, Hoyt A, Gruener G, et al. An analysis of lecture video utilization in undergraduate medical education: associations with performance in the courses. BMC Med Educ. 2009;9(1):6.
Monaghan, M. S., Cain, J. J., Malone, P. M., Chapman, T. A., Walters, R. W., Thompson, D. C., & Riedl, S. T. (2011). Educational technology use among US colleges and schools of pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(5), 1-9.
Nashash, H. Al, & Gunn, C. (2013). Lecture Capture in Engineering Classes: Bridging Gaps and Enhancing Learning, 16, 69–78.
Nast, A., Scha ¨fer-Hesterberg, G., Zielke, H., Sterry, W., & Rzany, B.(2009). Online lectures for students in dermatology:Areplacement for traditional teaching or a valuable addition? Journal of the Eur- opean Academy of Dermatology & Venereology, 23, 1039–1043.
Owston, R., Lupshenyuk, D., & Wideman, H. (2011). Lecture capture in large undergraduate classes: Student perceptions and academic performance. The Internet and Higher Education, 14(4), 262–268.
Parker, K., Lenhart, A., & Moore, K. (2011, August 28). The digital revolution and higher education. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved from http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2011/PIP-Online-Learning.pdf
Pilarski, P. P., Johnstone, D. A., Pettepher, C. C., & Osheroff, N. (2008). From music to macromolecules: Using rich media/podcast lecture recordings to enhance the preclinical educational experi- ence. Medical Teacher, 30, 630–632.
von Konsky, B. R., Ivins, J., & Gribble, S. J. (2009). Lecture attendance and web based lecture technologies: A comparison of student perceptions and usage patterns. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25, 581–595.
Williams A, Birch E, Hancock P. The impact of online lecture recordings on student performance. Aust J Educ Technol. 2012; 28(2):199-213.
Zhu, E. & Bergom, I. (2010). Lecture capture: A guide for effective use. Retrieved fromhttp://www.crlt.umich.edu/sites/default/files/resource_files/CRLT_no27.pdf

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

MOOCs: Recent study raises concerns

Wouldn’t it be nice to be able to offer thousands of college courses to low income, access-challenged, disenfranchised, or third-world students for low cost or even free?  Why not increase access to college education making it open and available to all?  At one point, M.O.O.Cs seemed like the logical solution to increase participation in higher education.  Unfortunately, things have not quite worked out as planned.

M.O.O.C.s, no doubt, you’ve heard the term, which stands for “Massive Open Online Course,” have recently come under scrutiny due to a recent study by the University of Pennsylvania (Penn GSE, 2013).  While a single study may not provide a complete picture, the Penn GSE study followed one million users over 16 courses in a two-year period.  The researchers’ primary focus was on the level of engagement of each user, and addressed the main question, “Were the users able to complete the courses?”

The emerging findings were unsettling to say the least.  Here is a summary from the University of Pennsylvania’s GSE site.
  • Course completion rates are very low, averaging 4% across all courses and ranging from 2% to 14% depending on the course and measurement of completion.
  • Across the 16 courses, completion rates are somewhat higher, on average, for courses with lower workloads for students and fewer homework assignments (about 6% versus 2.5%).
  • Variations in completion rates based on other course characteristics (e.g., course length, availability of live chat) were not statistically significant.
  • The total number of individuals accessing a course varied considerably across courses, ranging from more than 110,000 for “Introduction to Operations Management” to about 13,000 for “Rationing and Allocating Scarce Medical Resources.”
  • Across all courses, about half of those who registered viewed at least one lecture within their selected course. The share of registrants viewing at least one lecture ranged from a low of 27% for “Rationing and Allocating Scarce Medical Resources” to a high of 68% for “Fundamentals of Pharmacology.”
In 2013, another large MOOC project also had problems.  As reported in The New York Times, San Jose state, as part of the California public university system, tried a pilot program offering 300 students access to MOOCs sponsored by Udacity.  The courses were aimed at students who cannot meet basic academic requirements for English and math.  “Ellen N. Junn, provost and vice president for academic affairs at the university in San Jose, said the California State University System faces a crisis because more than 50 percent of entering students cannot meet basic requirements.”

Unfortunately, the program was suspended in July of 2013 due to results that paralleled the findings by the University of Pennsylvania GSE: low completion rates, and grades that were far lower than face-to-face classrooms.  The NY Times article describes the entire pilot as a “flop.”

Wednesday, January 8, 2014

Published! Faculty work supported by OAI's Writing Programs

Are you working on a book? A grant proposal? A chapter? Do you need some dedicated time and and a quiet space to move it forward?

OAI continues to offer faculty members the space, time, and support to focus on key writing projects. We offer six single-day writing retreats during the academic year: two per term in fall, winter, and spring; and two separate week-long retreats during summer term. Faculty response to these hosted Writing Retreats remains consistently strong and seats fill quickly, with priority given to first-time participants. In addition, Professor Dannelle Stevens, OAI’s Faculty-in-Residence for Academic Writing, continues to facilitate the JumpStart Faculty Writing Group, which she created to help de-mystify the academic writing process for PSU faculty by decoding its set of tacit rules and hidden expectations on the path to publication.

Participating PSU faculty and staff have credited the time and support of OAI’s faculty writing retreats and/or the JumpStart writing--at least in part--for the successful publication of the following books/chapters and articles:

Bright, A., & Connor, M.A. (2013). Building on what they bring: Considerations in working with young immigrant students in mathematics. In J. Keengwe & G. Onchwari (Eds.), Cross-cultural Considerations in the Education of Young Immigrant Learners (pp. 68-85). http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/building-on-what-they-bring/91846

Dolidon, Annabelle. "The Postmodern Farmer and the Production of Rural France in The Girl from Paris" The French Review, vol. 86, no. 5, 2013. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=27448232

Ford, E. (2013). Defining and Characterizing Open Peer Review: A review of the literature. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 44(4), 311-326. http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/ulib_fac/1/

Ford, E. & Bean, C. (2012). Open Ethos Publishing at Code4Lib Journal and In the Library with the Lead Pipe. In the Library with the Lead Pipe.December 12. http://inthelibrarywiththeleadpipe.org/2012/open-ethos-publishing

Ford, E. (2013). Becoming a Writer-Librarian. In the Library with the Lead Pipe. May 8. http://inthelibrarywiththeleadpipe.org/2013/becoming-a-writer-librarian

Hatfield, L. J. (2013). Academic coaching: Experiences and lessons at one urban institution. Developments, 11(4). Retrieved from http://www2.myacpa.org/developments/winter-2013/academic-coaching-experiences-and-lessons-at-one-urban-university

Hofer, A.R. (2013, December 18). Giving games the old college try. In the Library with the Lead Pipe. Available from http://www.inthelibrarywiththeleadpipe.org/2013/giving-games-the-old-college-try

Boris Mordukhovich and Nguyen Mau Nam: An Easy Path to Convex Analysis and Applications, Synthesis Lectures on Mathematics and Statistics, Editor: Steven G. Krantz (Washington University, St. Louis), Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2013. http://www.morganclaypool.com/doi/abs/10.2200/S00554ED1V01Y201312MAS014

Nishishiba, M., Jones, M., & Kraner, M. (2013). Research Methods and Statistics for Public and Nonprofit Administrators: A Practical Guide. (392 pages). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://www.sagepub.com/books/Book237346?course=Course9&sortBy=defaultPubDate%20desc&fs=1

Nishishiba, M. (2012). Local Government Diversity Initiatives in Oregon: An Exploratory Study. State and Local Government Review, 44(1), 55–66.
http://slg.sagepub.com.proxy.lib.pdx.edu/content/44/1/55.full.pdf%20html or http://portlandstate.worldcat.org.proxy.lib.pdx.edu/title/local-government-diversity-initiatives-in-oregon-an-exploratory-study/oclc/4824917195

Nishishiba, M. (contract signed). Culturally mindful communication: Essential skills for public and nonprofit professionals. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Peterson, D. S. (2013). Drafted! An urban principal’s tale. Educational Leadership, 70(7), 74-77. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr13/vol70/num07/Drafted!-An-Urban-Principal's-Tale.aspx

Peterson, D.S., Petti, A., and Carlile, S. (2013). Preparing future school leaders to ensure racial, ethnic, linguistic, and socio-economic equity in education: The ‘third way’. Education Leadership Review, special issue, May, 2013, 88-95. http://www.ncpeapublications.org/attachments/article/563/ELR_Special_Final.pdf

Peterson, D.S. and Lehnhoff, N. (in press, expected January 2014). Superintendents supporting high poverty schools: School-based social services coordination. e-Journal for New Superintendents. American Association of School Administrators.

Reynolds, C., Stevens, D. D. & West, E. (2013). "I'm in a professional school. Why are you making me do this?" A cross-disciplinary study on the use of creative classroom projects on student learning. College Teaching, 61(1), 51-59. http://www.tandfonline.com.proxy.lib.pdx.edu/doi/pdf/10.1080/87567555.2012.731660

Voegele, J.D. (2013). Student perspectives on blended learning through the lens of social, teaching and cognitive presence. In C. Graham, C. Dzuiban, A. Picciano (Eds.), Research Perspectives on Blended Learning, 2nd Ed. New York: Routledge.

Yang, L. Q., Bauer, J., Johnson, R. E., Groer, M., & Salomon, K. (In press). Physiological mechanisms that underlie the effects of interactional unfairness on deviant behavior: the role of cortisol activity. Journal of Applied Psychology.

Monday, December 16, 2013

D2L 10.2 Upgrade Notice + Screenshots

On Wednesday December 18, 2013, the Desire2Learn platform will be upgraded from version 9.4 to 10.2. D2L will be unavailable all day on the 18th. Upon D2L coming back up on the 19th, please review your course and send any questions to the Helpdesk. The IDSC will also be available for walk-ins. However, due to recarpeting at the Broadway Building, we are temporarily moving the lab to OAI, located at SMSU 209. Please feel free to stop by if you have any questions or need assistance with your courses.

We have two screenshots to share with you. The first is the new login page which will have direct links to our help resources as well as a notice area. The other screenshot features our new Faculty knowledge base which we hope will be a substantial improvement to our original help resources.

Friday, November 22, 2013

D2L 10.2 Videos

On Wednesday December 18, 2013, the Desire2Learn platform will be upgraded from version 9.4 to 10.2. The two tutorial videos below explain in more detail what the changes are to the Course Homepage and the Course Content area.

 Course Homepage

Course Content

For practical information about how to prepare for the upgrade, read this article.
For a general overview video of the changes we have this blogpost.
Be sure to check out our comparison screenshots here: http://psuoai.blogspot.com/2013/11/d2l-upgrade-comparison-screenshots.html


For questions or concerns about this upgrade, do not hesitate to contact us via d2lupgrade-group@pdx.edu (fixed) or leave your comments to this blogpost below!

Thursday, November 21, 2013

D2L Upgrade Comparison Screenshots

On Wednesday December 18, 2013, the Desire2Learn platform will be upgraded from version 9.4 to 10.2. We have provided comparison screenshots of the three major areas that will be most impacted by the upgrade:

D2L Homepage

The overall look and feel will be noticed right when you log in. The colors have been revised to provide a cleaner look at feel. Navigation will also be easier as a new "minibar" is always present on the top of the screen in D2L version 10.2, allowing you to access your courses, notifications, and personal settings from any course, on any screen.

Course Homepage

The new layout also introduces a Fixed 960 width layout. This will provide better compatibility with the assortment of technology out there, including mobile devices. Because of this fixed width, the first thing you will notice on your course homepage is that we have created a new 2 column widget layout for easier viewing. In addition, the course navigation has been redesigned to accommodate the new dropdown features. This allows us to group more tools into the navigation bar so that both students and faculty can access them easily.

Course Content

The tool that has had some considerable changes done is course content. However, the core structure of course content is much like you have been used to. Content is still structured by Modules and Topics. However, creating modules and topics is much easier and more intuitive.

Be sure to check out our two new tutorial videos covering the Course Homepage and Course Content here: http://psuoai.blogspot.com/2013/11/d2l-102-videos.html


For questions or concerns about this upgrade, do not hesitate to contact us via d2lupgrade-group@pdx.edu (fixed) or leave your comments to this blogpost below!

PSU Faculty explore flipped classroom techniques

The Office of Academic Innovation recently hosted a lunch and seminar for new faculty interested in incorporating “flipped classroom” ideas and techniques into their teaching and learning plans. We hosted this event in response to increasing faculty questions (and reservations) about flipping their classrooms. Many hybrid or partly online courses are designed with the student-to-content or passive activities “offloaded” to the online portion; this is what many people think of when they think of a flipped classroom. Research indicates this isn’t particularly effective, and many faculty are reluctant to flip their classrooms because they instinctively know that merely offloading the lecture to an online format isn’t good learning design.

The basic premise behind the flipped classroom is that the classroom becomes a site of active learning, rather than traditional lecture-based passive learning. However, to avoid the problem of “offloading” content, you still need to design online and out-of-class experiences that are also active, rather than purely passive. One way to do this is to base the sequence of online and in class activities on a learning cycle. Learning cycles are commonly used in lesson planning because they describe the most commonly-recognized cognitive processes of learning transfer (long-term retention). They also emphasize engagement as a crucial first step in learning.

An example of a learning cycle commonly used in flipped classroom design is Karplus’ (1977) three phase model, in which students first explore a topic, then explain their hypotheses and receive explanation from the instructor and content, and finally are given active learning opportunities to apply and refine what they have learned.

Here is an example of a pattern of online and in-class activities that incorporate active learning opportunities, based on the “Explore-Explain-Apply” model:

During the faculty session Sarah (Berry) and I got quite a few questions about how to make the delivery of content more interactive- specifically, how to “chunk” lectures for optimal retention and what technologies or applications are best for making content delivery interactive. We are hoping to offer workshops to help faculty create that kind of course content in Winter 2014.

In the meantime, if you are interested in flipping your classroom, or designing interactive lectures, here are some resources to get you started:

PSU Library’s Subject-based research guides -
The "Course Guides" tab on this page includes examples of guides created for specific courses. These can be custom built to be useful for flipping the research assignment.

Harvey Silver and Matthew J. Perini, The Interactive Lecture, “Introducing the Interactive Lecture”: (We have this book at the OAI library)

Case study from the University of Queensland (discusses benefits and ways to get students to do online preparation and reading prior to classroom interaction):

Amy J. Prunuske, Janet Batzli, Evelyn Howell, and Sarah Miller, “Using Online Lectures to Make Time for Active Learning,” Genetics, Vol. 192, 67–72 September 2012.

Louis Deslauriers, Ellen Schelew, Carl Wieman, ”Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class,” Science 13 May 2011: Vol. 332 no. 6031 pp. 862-864.

William B. Wood and Kimberly D. Tanner, “The Role of the Lecturer as Tutor: Doing What Effective Tutors Do in a Large Lecture Class,” CBE—Life Sciences Education Vol. 11, 3–9, Spring 2012.

Harvey F. Silver, Joyce W. Jackson and Daniel R. Moirao, Task Rotation, Section 1:

M. David Merrill, “First Principles of Instruction,” Educational Technology Research & Development. 2002, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 43-59. (Log in to the PSU library to download PDF):